Unsmoothed Vos, Estévez & Walraven (1990) cone fundamentals

Data key



  1. Wavelength (nm)
  2. log L-cone spectral sensitivity
  3. log M-cone spectral sensitivity
  4. log S-cone spectral sensitivity



    The Vos, Estévez and Walraven cone fundamentals are based on the following transformations




  where ,  and  are the Stiles & Burch (1955) color matching functions.

    The functions given in energy units have been normalized in the ratio of L:M:S = 0.68:0.34:0.02 (see Vos, Estévez & Walraven, 1990, p. 942). The functions given in quantal units have been normalized to peak at 0.

The functions tabulated in Table 1 of Vos, Estévez & Walraven (1990) were "slightly smoothed to remove obvious data noise."
Click here for the original functions.


Stiles, W. S. & Burch, J. M. (1955). Interim report to the Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage Zurich, 1955, on the National Physical Laboratory's investigation of colour-matching. Optica Acta, 2, 168-181.

Stiles, W. S. & Burch, J. M. (1959). NPL colour-matching investigation: Final report. Optica Acta, 6, 1-26.

Vos, J. J., Estévez, O. & Walraven, P. L. (1990). Improved color fundamentals offer a new view on photometric additivity. Vision Research, 30, 936-943.